Latest CAPM Exam Dumbs 2023 For CAPM Exam Takers

1000 CAPM Exam Dumps 2023 For CAPM Exam Takers

 

Which document defines how a project is executed, monitored and controlled, and closed?

A. Strategic plan
B. Project charter
C. Project management plan
D. Service level agreement

Correct Answer: C 

Project Management Plan

The project management plan is the document that describes how the project will be executed, monitored, and controlled. It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary plans and baselines from the planning processes. Project baselines include, but are not limited to:

 

Scope baseline

Schedule baseline  and Cost baseline

Subsidiary plans include, but are not limited to:

Scope management plan , Requirements management plan , Schedule management plan , Cost management plan ,
Quality management plan , Process improvement plan , Human resource management plan, Communications management plan, Risk management plan , Procurement management plan , and Stakeholder management plan. Among other things, the project management plan may also include the following:

 

Life cycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase; Details of the tailoring decisions specified by the project management team as follows:

○ Project management processes selected by the project management team,
○ Level of implementation for each selected process,
○ Descriptions of the tools and techniques to be used for accomplishing those processes, and
○ Description of how the selected processes will be used to manage the specific project, including the dependencies and interactions among those processes and the essential inputs and outputs.

 

 

Description of how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives;

Change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled; Configuration management plan that documents how Configuration management will be performed; Description of how the integrity of the project baselines will be maintained;  Requirements and techniques for communication among stakeholders; and Key management reviews for content, the extent of, and timing to address, open issues and pending decisions.

 

The project management plan may be either summary level or detailed, and may be composed of one or more subsidiary plans. Each of the subsidiary plans is detailed to the extent required by the specific project. Once the project management plan is baselined, it may only be changed when a change request is generated and approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

 

QUESTION 2

Which changes occur in risk and uncertainty as well as the cost of changes as the life cycle of a typical project progresses?

A. Risk and uncertainty increase; the cost of changes increases.
B. Risk and uncertainty increase; the cost of changes decreases.
C. Risk and uncertainty decrease; the cost of changes increases.
D. Risk and uncertainty decrease; the cost of changes decreases.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation/Reference:

QUESTION 3

Which tool or technique is used in the Plan Scope Management process?

A. Document analysis
B. Observations
C. Product analysis
D. Expert judgment

Correct Answer: D

Explanation/Reference:

 

Expert Judgment

Expert judgment refers to input received from knowledgeable and experienced parties. Expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training in developing scope management plans.

Process: Plan Scope Management

Definition: The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project.

Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Meetings

Outputs
1. Scope management plan
2. Requirements management plan

 

QUESTION 4
Which tool or technique is an examination of industry and specific vendor capabilities?

A. Independent estimates
B. Market research
C. Analytical techniques
D. Bidder conferences

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:
Market Research

Market research includes examination of industry and specific vendor capabilities. Procurement teams may leverage information gained at conferences, online reviews and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.

The team may also refine particular procurement objectives to leverage maturing technologies while balancing risks associated with the breadth of vendors who can provide the materials or services desired.

QUESTION 5

An input used in developing the communications management plan is:

A. Communication models.
B. Enterprise environmental factors.
C. Organizational communications.
D. Organizational cultures and styles.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Communications Management Plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The plan contains the following information:
Stakeholder communication requirements; Information to be communicated, including language, format, content, and level of detail; Reason for the distribution of that information; Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information and receipt of acknowledgment or response, if applicable; Person responsible for communicating the information; Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information; Person or groups who will receive the information; Methods or technologies used to convey the information, such as memos, e-mail, and/or press releases; Resources allocated for communication activities, including time and budget; Escalation process identifying time frames and the management chain (names) for escalation of issues that cannot be resolved at a lower staff level; Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops; Glossary of common terminology;Flow charts of the information flow in the project, workflows with possible sequence of authorization, list of reports, and meeting plans, etc.; and Communication constraints usually derived from a specific legislation or regulation, technology, and organizational policies, etc.

 

 

The communications management plan can also include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

 

QUESTION 6
Regression analysis, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and trend analysis are examples of which tool or technique?

A. Expert judgment
B. Forecasting methods
C. Earned value management
D. Analytical techniques

 

Correct Answer: D 

Explanation/Reference:

 

Analytical Techniques
Analytical techniques are applied in project management to forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables. Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are: Regression analysis, Grouping methods, Causal analysis, Root cause analysis, Forecasting methods (e.g., time series, scenario building, simulation, etc.), Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), Fault tree analysis (FTA), Reserve analysis, Trend analysis, Earned value management, and Variance analysis.

 

QUESTION 7
The Perform Quality Assurance process occurs in which Process Group?

A. Executing
B. Monitoring and Controlling
C. Initiating
D. Planning

Correct Answer: A 
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
Executing Process Group

 

Direct and Manage Project Work
 Perform Quality Assurance
 Acquire Project Team
Develop Project Team
Manage Project Team
 Manage Communications
Conduct Procurements
 Manage Stakeholder Engagement

 

QUESTION 8
Enterprise environmental factors are an input to which process?

A. Control Scope
B. Define Scope
C. Plan Scope Management
D. Collect Requirements

Correct Answer: C 

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Process: Plan Scope Management
Definition: The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project.

Inputs1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Meetings

Outputs
Scope management plan Requirements management plan

 

QUESTION 9
Which process develops options and actions to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to project objectives?

A. Identify Risks
B. Control Risks
C. Plan Risk Management
D. Plan Risk Responses

Correct Answer: D

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: Plan Risk Responses

Definition: The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it addresses the risks by their priority, inserting resources and activities into the budget, schedule and project management plan as needed.

Inputs
1. Risk management plan
2. Risk register

Tools & Techniques
1. Strategies for negative risks or threats
2. Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
3. Contingent response strategies
4. Expert judgment

Outputs
1. Project management plan updates
2. Project documents updates

QUESTION 10

The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule is known as:

A. Plan Schedule Management.
B. Develop Project Charter.
C. Develop Schedule.
D. Plan Scope Management.

Correct Answer: A 

Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:

Process: Plan Schedule Management
Definition: The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.

Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Analytical techniques
3. Meetings

Outputs
1. Schedule management plan

QUESTION 11
Which input to the Manage Stakeholder Engagement process is used to document changes that occur during the project?

A. Issue log
B. Change log
C. Expert judgment
D. Change requests

Correct Answer: B 

Change Log
A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

Manage Stakeholder Engagement

Definition: The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it allows the project manager to increase support and minimize resistance from stakeholders, significantly increasing the chances to achieve project success.

Inputs
1. Stakeholder management plan
2. Communications management plan
3. Change log
4. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques
1. Communication methods
2. Interpersonal skills
3. Management skills

Outputs
1. Issue log
2. Change requests
3. Project management plan updates
4. Project documents updates
5. Organizational process assets updates

QUESTION 12

An input to the Plan Stakeholder Management process is:

A. The project charter.
B. The stakeholder analysis.
C. A communication management plan.
D. A stakeholder register.
Correct Answer: D

 

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Plan Stakeholder Management

Definition: Stakeholder Management is the process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides a clear, actionable plan to interact with project stakeholders to support the project’s interests.

Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Stakeholder register
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets

 

Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Meetings
3. Analytical techniques

Outputs
Stakeholder management plan Project documents updates

Stakeholder Register
The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements. The stakeholder register also captures major requirements and main expectations stakeholders may have for the project.

 Stakeholder Register
The main output of the Identify Stakeholders process is the stakeholder register. This contains all details related to the identified stakeholders including, but not limited to:

Identification information. Name, organizational position, location, role in the project, contact information;
Assessment information. Major requirements, main expectations, potential influence in the project, phase in the life cycle with the most interest; and Stakeholder classification. Internal/external, supporter/neutral/resistor, etc.
The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change— or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

QUESTION 13
An input to the Plan Cost Management process is:

A. Cost estimates
B. Resource calendars
C. The project charter
D. The risk register
Correct Answer: C 

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Project Charter
The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. It documents the business needs, assumptions, constraints, the understanding of the customer’s needs and high-level requirements, and the new product, service, or result that it is intended to satisfy, such as:

 

Project purpose or justification, Measurable project objectives and related success criteria, High-level requirements,
Assumptions and constraints,High-level project description and boundaries, High-level risks,

Summary milestone schedule, Summary budget, Stakeholder list,
Project approval requirements (i.e., what constitutes project success, who decides the project is successful, and who signs off on the project), Assigned project manager, responsibility, and authority level, and
Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter.

Process:  Plan Cost Management
Definition: The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project costs will be managed throughout the project.

Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques

1. Expert judgment
2. Analytical techniques
3. Meetings

Outputs
Cost management plan

QUESTION 14
A technique used to determine the cause and degree of difference between baseline and actual performance is:

A. Product analysis.
B. Variance analysis.
C. Document analysis.
D. Decomposition.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Variance Analysis

Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline  and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

QUESTION 15
The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, and reporting relationships and creating a staffing management plan is known as:

 

A. Develop Project Team.
B. Manage Project Team.
C. Acquire Project Team.

D. Plan Human Resource Management.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

Process: Plan Human Resource Management
Definition: The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release.

Inputs

1. Project management plan
2. Activity resource requirements
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques

1. Organization charts and position descriptions
2. Networking
3. Organizational theory
4. Expert judgment
5. Meetings

Outputs
Human resource management plan

QUESTION 16
Which type of dependency is legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of work and often involves physical limitations?

 

A. Mandatory
B. Discretionary
C. Internal
D. External

Correct Answer: A 
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Dependency Determination

Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary, internal or external, as described below. Dependency has four attributes, but two can be applicable at the same time in following ways: mandatory external dependencies, mandatory internal dependencies, discretionary external dependencies, or discretionary internal dependencies.

 

Mandatory dependencies. Mandatory dependencies are those that are legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project, where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or on an electronics project, where a prototype has to be built before it can be tested.

 

Mandatory dependencies are also sometimes referred to as hard logic or hard dependencies. Technical dependencies may not be mandatory. The project team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of sequencing the activities. Mandatory dependencies should not be confused with assigning schedule constraints in the scheduling tool.

 

Discretionary dependencies. Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences.

 

Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options. When fast tracking techniques are employed, these discretionary dependencies should be reviewed and considered for modification or removal. The project team determines which dependencies are discretionary during the process of sequencing the activities.

 

External dependencies. External dependencies involve a relationship between project activities and non- project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control. For example, the testing activity in a software project may be dependent on the delivery of hardware from an external source, or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on a construction project.

 

The project management team determines which dependencies are external during the process of sequencing the activities.

 

Internal dependencies. Internal dependencies involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team’s control. For example, if the team cannot test a machine until they assemble it, this is an internal mandatory dependency. The project management team determines which dependencies are internal during the process of sequencing the activities.

 

QUESTION 17
During which process does a project manager review all prior information to ensure that all project work is completed and that the project has met its objectives?

A. Monitor and Control Project Work
B. Perform Quality Assurance
C. Close Project or Phase
D. Control Scope

Correct Answer: C

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Process: 4.6. Close Project or Phase
Definition: The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the phase or project.

 

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides lessons learned, the formal ending of project work, and the release of organization resources to pursue new endeavors.

Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Accepted deliverables
3. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques

1. Expert judgment
2. Analytical techniques
3. Meetings

Outputs
1. Final product, service, or result transition
2. Organizational process assets updates

 

QUESTION 18
An input to the Manage Project Team process is:

A. Work performance reports.
B. Change requests.
C. Activity resource requirements.
D. Enterprise environmental factors.
Correct Answer: A 

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:

Process: Manage Project Team
Definition: The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.

Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it influences team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance.

Inputs
1. Human resource management plan
2. Project staff assignments
3. Team performance assessments
4. Issue log
5. Work performance reports
6. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques

1. Observation and conversation
2. Project performance appraisals
3. Conflict management
4. Interpersonal skills
Outputs
1. Change requests
2. Project management plan updates
3. Project documents updates
4. Enterprise environmental factors updates
5. Organizational process assets updates
QUESTION 19
Which input provides suppliers with a clear set of goals, requirements, and outcomes?
A. Procurement statement of work
B. Purchase order
C. Source selection criteria
D. Bidder conference
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
12.1.3.2 Procurement Statement of Work
The statement of work (SOW) for each procurement is developed from the project scope baseline and defines
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only that portion of the project scope that is to be included within the related contract. The procurement SOW describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results. Sufficient detail can vary based on the nature of the item, the needs of the buyer, or the expected contract form. Information included in a SOW can include specifications, quantity desired, quality levels, performance data, period of performance, work location, and other requirements.
The procurement SOW is written to be clear, complete, and concise. It includes a description of any collateral services required, such as performance reporting or post-project operational support for the procured item. In some application areas, there are specific content and format requirements for a procurement SOW. Each individual procurement item requires a SOW; however, multiple products or services can be grouped as one procurement item within a single SOW.
The procurement SOW can be revised and refined as required as it moves through the procurement process until incorporated into a signed agreement.
QUESTION 20
A large portion of a projects budget is typically expended on the processes in which Process Group?
A. Executing
B. Planning
C. Monitoring and Controlling
D. Closing
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 21
A project manager providing information to the right audience, in the right format, at the right time is an example of which type of communication?
A. Efficient
B. Effective
C. Push
D. Pull
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
On most projects, communication planning is performed very early, such as during project management plan development. This allows appropriate resources, such as time and budget, to be allocated to communication activities.
Effective communication means that the information is provided in the right format, at the right time, to the right audience, and with the right impact. Efficient communication means providing only the information that is needed.
QUESTION 22
Scope, schedule, and cost parameters are integrated in the:
A. Performance measurement baseline.
B. Analysis of project forecasts.
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C. Summary of changes approved in a period.
D. Analysis of past performance.
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). An approved, integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. The PMB includes contingency reserve, but excludes management reserve.
QUESTION 23
A project in which the scope, time, and cost of delivery are determined as early as possible is following a life cycle that is:
A. Adaptive
B. Predictive
C. Incremental
D. Iterative
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
2.4.2.2 Predictive Life Cycles
Predictive life cycles (also known as fully plan-driven) are ones in which the project scope, and the time and cost required to deliver that scope, are determined as early in the project life cycle as practically possible. As shown in Figure 2-13, these projects proceed through a series of sequential or overlapping phases, with each phase generally focusing on a subset of project activities and project management processes. The work performed in each phase is usually different in nature to that in the preceding and subsequent phases, therefore, the makeup and skills required of the project team may vary from phase to phase.
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QUESTION 24
What is the schedule performance index (SPI) if the planned value (PV) is $100, the actual cost (AC) is $150, and the earned value (EV) is $50?
A. 0.50
B. 0.67
C. 1.50
D. 2.00
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
CV = EV – AC CPI = EV / AC SV = EV – PV SPI = EV / PV
QUESTION 25
Which item is an input to the Define Activities process?
A. Schedule data
B. Activity list
C. Risk register
D. Scope baseline
Correct Answer: D
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Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
5.4.3.1 Scope Baseline
The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan. Components of the scope baseline include:
Project scope statement. The project scope statement includes the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
WBS. The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. Each descending level of the WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. The WBS is finalized by assigning each work package to a control account and establishing a unique identifier for that work package from a code of accounts. These identifiers provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs, schedule, and resource information. A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the WBS. Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each of the work packages should be associated with only one control account. A control account may include one or more planning packages. A planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.
WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the WBS. The WBS dictionary is a document that supports the WBS. Information in the WBS dictionary may include, but is not limited to:
○ Code of account identifier,
○ Description of work,
○ Assumptions and constraints,
○ Responsible organization,
○ Schedule milestones,
○ Associated schedule activities,
○ Resources required,
○ Cost estimates,
○ Quality requirements,
○ Acceptance criteria,
○ Technical references, and
○ Agreement information
Process: 6.2 Define Activities
Definition: The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
Inputs
1. Schedule management plan
2. Scope baseline
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Decomposition
2. Rolling wave planning
3. Expert judgment
Outputs
1. Activity list
2. Activity attributes
3. Milestone list
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QUESTION 26
When alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is necessary, which tool or technique should be utilized?
A. Interactive communication
B. Claims administration
C. Conflict management
D. Performance reporting
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
12.3.2.6 Claims Administration
Contested changes and potential constructive changes are those requested changes where the buyer and seller cannot reach an agreement on compensation for the change or cannot agree that a change has occurred. These contested changes are variously called claims, disputes, or appeals. Claims are documented, processed, monitored, and managed throughout the contract life cycle, usually in accordance with the terms of the contract. If the parties themselves do not resolve a claim, it may have to be handled in accordance with alternative dispute resolution (ADR) typically following procedures established in the contract. Settlement of all claims and disputes through negotiation is the preferred method.
QUESTION 27
Which quality management and control tool is useful in visualizing parent-to-child relationships in any decomposition hierarchy that uses a systematic set of rules that define a nesting relationship?
A. Interrelationship digraphs
B. Tree diagram
C. Affinity diagram
D. Network diagram
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
8.2.2.1 Quality Management and Control Tools
The Perform Quality Assurance process uses the tools and techniques of the Plan Quality Management and Control Quality processes. In addition, other tools that are available include (see also Figure 8-10):
Affinity diagrams. The affinity diagram is similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem. In project management, the creation of the WBS may be enhanced by using the affinity diagram to give structure to the decomposition of scope.
Process decision program charts (PDPC). Used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal. The PDPC is useful as a method for contingency planning because it aids teams in anticipating intermediate steps that could derail achievement of the goal.
Interrelationship digraphs. An adaptation of relationship diagrams. The interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships for up to 50 relevant items. The interrelationship digraph may be developed from data generated in other tools such as the affinity diagram, the tree diagram, or the fshbone diagram.
Tree diagrams. Also known as systematic diagrams and may be used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS (risk breakdown structure), and OBS (organizational breakdown structure). In project management, tree diagrams are useful in visualizing the parent-to-child relationships in any decomposition hierarchy that uses a systematic set of rules that define a nesting relationship. Tree diagrams
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can be depicted horizontally (such as a risk breakdown structure) or vertically (such as a team hierarchy or OBS). Because tree diagrams permit the creation of nested branches that terminate into a single decision point, they are useful as decision trees for establishing an expected value for a limited number of dependent relationships that have been diagramed systematically.
Prioritization matrices. Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation. Criteria are prioritized and weighted before being applied to all available alternatives to obtain a mathematical score that ranks the options.
Activity network diagrams. Previously known as arrow diagrams. They include both the AOA (Activity on Arrow) and, most commonly used, AON (Activity on Node) formats of a network diagram. Activity network diagrams are used with project scheduling methodologies such as program evaluation and review technique (PERT), critical path method (CPM), and precedence diagramming method (PDM).
Matrix diagrams. A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
QUESTION 28
The only Process Group that comprises processes that typically occur from the beginning to the end of the project life cycle is:
A. Planning.
B. Executing,
C. Monitoring and Controlling.
D. Closing.
Correct Answer: C Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 29
Organizational theory is a tool used in which Project Human Resource Management process?
A. Manage Project Team
B. Acquire Project Team
C. Develop Project Team
D. Plan Human Resource Management
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
9.1.2.3 Organizational Theory
Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave. Effective use of common themes identified in organizational theory can shorten the amount of time, cost, and effort needed to create the Plan Human Resource Management process outputs and improve planning efficiency. It is important to recognize that different organizational structures have different individual response, individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics. Also, applicable organizational theories may recommend exercising a flexible leadership style that adapts to the changes in a team’s maturity level throughout the project life cycle.
Process: 9.1 Plan Human Resource Management
Definition: The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
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Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Activity resource requirements
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Organization charts and position descriptions
2. Networking
3. Organizational theory
4. Expert judgment
5. Meetings
Outputs
Human resource management plan
QUESTION 30
Which tools or techniques are used in the Plan Schedule Management process?
A. Benchmarking, expert judgment, and analytical techniques
B. Statistical sampling, benchmarking, and meetings
C. Negotiations, pre-assignment, and multi-criteria decision analysis
D. Expert judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: 6.1 Plan Schedule Management
Definition: The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Analytical techniques
3. Meetings
Outputs
1. Schedule management plan
4.1.2.1 Expert Judgment
Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group
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or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources, including: Other units within the organization,
Consultants,
Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors, Professional and technical associations, Industry groups,
Subject matter experts (SME), and Project management office (PMO).
QUESTION 31
A project manager is appointed full-time to a project and is given full-time administrative staff and full-time project team members. This situation describes which type of organizational structure?
A. Projectized
B. Weak matrix
C. Functional
D. Balanced matrix
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Project managers have the highest level of power and authority in a projectized organization. They also have high levels of power and authority in a strong matrix; however, a matrix organization is a blend of functional and projectized organizations, and therefore, the project manager does not have quite the same level of authority as they would in a projectized organization.
QUESTION 32
A project charter is an output of which Process Group?
A. Executing
B. Planning
C. Initiating
D. Closing
Correct Answer: C Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
4.2.1.1 Project Charter
Described in Section 4.1.3.1. The size of the project charter varies depending on the complexity of the project and the information known at the time of its creation. At a minimum, the project charter should define the high- level boundaries of the project. The project team uses the project charter as the starting point for initial planning throughout the Initiating Process Group.
4.1.3.1 Project Charter
The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. It documents the business needs, assumptions, constraints, the understanding of the customer’s needs and high-level requirements, and the new product, service, or result that it is intended to satisfy, such as:
Project purpose or justification,
Measurable project objectives and related success criteria,
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High-level requirements, Assumptions and constraints,
High-level project description and boundaries, High-level risks,
Summary milestone schedule, Summary budget, Stakeholder list,
Project approval requirements (i.e., what constitutes project success, who decides the project is successful, and who signs off on the project),
Assigned project manager, responsibility, and authority level, and
Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter.
QUESTION 33
Which tool or technique is effective in a project in which the deliverable is not a service or result?
A. Inspection
B. Variance analysis
C. Decomposition
D. Product analysis
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
5.3.2.2 Product Analysis
For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables. Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
QUESTION 34
An element of the project scope statement is:
A. Acceptance criteria.
B. A stakeholder list.
C. A summary budget.
D. High-level risks.
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
5.3.3.1 Project Scope Statement
The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries.
The degree and level of detail to which the project scope statement defines the work that will be performed
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and the work that is excluded can help determine how well the project management team can control the overall project scope. The detailed project scope statement, either directly, or by reference to other documents, includes the following:
Product scope description. Progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product, service, or result described in the project charter and requirements documentation.
Acceptance criteria. A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted.
Deliverable. Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables also include ancillary results, such as project management reports and documentation. These deliverables may be described at a summary level or in great detail.
Project exclusion. Generally identifies what is excluded from the project. Explicitly stating what is out of scope for the project helps to manage stakeholders’ expectations.
Constraints. A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process. Constraints identified with the project scope statement list and describe the specific internal or external restrictions or limitations associated with the project scope that affect the execution of the project, for example, a predefined budget or any imposed dates or schedule milestones that are issued by the customer or performing organization. When a project is performed under an agreement, contractual provisions will generally be constraints. Information on constraints may be listed in the project scope statement or in a separate log.
Assumptions. A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration. Also describes the potential impact of those factors if they prove to be false.
Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Information on assumptions may be listed in the project scope statement or in a separate log.
Although the project charter and the project scope statement are sometimes perceived as containing a certain degree of redundancy, they are different in the level of detail contained in each. The project charter contains high level information, while the project scope statement contains a detailed description of the scope elements. These elements are progressively elaborated throughout the project. Table 5-1 describes some of the key elements for each document.
Table 5-1. Elements of the Project Charter and Project Scope Statement Project Charter
Project purpose or justification Measurable project objectives and related success criteria High-level requirements
High-level project description High-level risks
Summary milestone schedule Summary budget Stakeholder list
Project approval requirements
(what constitutes success, who decides it, who signs off) Assigned project manager,
responsibility, and authority level
Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter
Project Scope Statement
Project scope description (progressively elaborated) Acceptance criteria
Project deliverables Project exclusions Project constraints Project assumptions
QUESTION 35
Which document describes the necessary information to determine if a project is worth the required
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investment?
A. Cost baseline
B. Service level agreement
C. Memorandum of understanding
D. Business case
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
4.1.1.2 Business Case
The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case. The business case is created as a result of one or more of the following:
Market demand (e.g., a car company authorizing a project to build more fuel-efficient cars in response to gasoline shortages),
Organizational need (e.g., due to high overhead costs a company may combine staff functions and streamline processes to reduce costs.),
Customer request (e.g., an electric utility authorizing a project to build a new substation to serve a new industrial park),
Technological advance (e.g., an airline authorizing a new project to develop electronic tickets instead of paper tickets based on technological advances),
Legal requirement (e.g., a paint manufacturer authorizing a project to establish guidelines for handling toxic materials),
Ecological impacts (e.g., a company authorizing a project to lessen its environmental impact), or
Social need (e.g., a nongovernmental organization in a developing country authorizing a project to provide potable water systems, latrines, and sanitation education to communities suffering from high rates of cholera).
Each of the examples in this list may contain elements of risk that should be addressed. In the case of multiphase projects, the business case may be periodically reviewed to ensure that the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. In the early stages of the project life cycle, periodic review of the business case by the sponsoring organization also helps to confirm that the project is still aligned with the business case. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project effectively and efficiently meets the goals of the organization and those requirements of a broad set of stakeholders, as defined in the business case.
QUESTION 36
Which process involves monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline?
A. Estimate Costs
B. Control Costs
C. Determine Budget
D. Plan Cost Management
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
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7.3.3.1 Cost Baseline
The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
7.4 Control Costs
Definition: The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it determines the cost baseline against which project performance can be monitored and controlled.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project funding requirements
3. Work performance data
4. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Earned value management
2. Forecasting
3. To-complete performance index (TCPI)
4. Performance reviews
5. Project management software
6. Reserve analysis
Outputs
1. Work performance information
2. Cost forecasts
3. Change requests
4. Project management plan updates
5. Project documents updates
6. Organizational process assets updates
QUESTION 37
Which group is formally chartered and responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project and for recording and communicating decisions?
A. Project team
B. Focus group
C. Change control board
D. Project stakeholders
Correct Answer: C Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Change Control Board (CCB). A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.
QUESTION 38
Plan Schedule Management is a process in which Knowledge Area?
A. Project Scope Management
B. Project Human Resource Management
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C. Project Integration Management
D. Project Time Management
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Schedule -> Time Management Easy question
QUESTION 39
An output of the Validate Scope process is:
A. A requirements traceability matrix.
B. The scope management plan.
C. Work performance reports.
D. Change requests.
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: 5.5 Validate Scope
Definition: The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acceptance process and increases the chance of final product, service, or result acceptance by validating each deliverable.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Requirements documentation
3. Requirements traceability matrix
4. Verified deliverables
5. Work performance data
Tools & Techniques
1. Inspection
2. Group decision-making techniques
Outputs
1. Accepted deliverables
2. Change requests
3. Work performance information
4. Project documents updates
QUESTION 40
The Perform Integrated Change Control process occurs in which Process Group?
A. Initiating
B. Executing
C. Monitoring and Controlling
D. Planning
Correct Answer: C
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Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control
5.5 Validate Scope
5.6 Control Scope
6.7 Control Schedule
7.4 Control Costs
8.3 Control Quality
10.3 Control Communications
11.6 Control Risks
12.3 Control Procurements
13.4 Control Stakeholder Engagement
QUESTION 41
Which input to the Plan Risk Management process provides information on high-level risks?
A. Project charter
B. Enterprise environmental factors
C. Stakeholder register
D. Organizational process assets
Correct Answer: A Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
4.1.3.1 Project Charter
The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. It documents the business needs, assumptions, constraints, the understanding of the customer’s needs and high-level requirements, and the new product, service, or result that it is intended to satisfy, such as:
Project purpose or justification,
Measurable project objectives and related success criteria, High-level requirements,
Assumptions and constraints,
High-level project description and boundaries,
High-level risks,
Summary milestone schedule, Summary budget, Stakeholder list,
Project approval requirements (i.e., what constitutes project success, who decides the project is successful, and who signs off on the project),
Assigned project manager, responsibility, and authority level, and
Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter.
Process: 11.1 Plan Risk Management
Definition: The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is it ensures that the degree, type, and visibility of risk management are commensurate with both the risks and the importance of the project to the organization. The risk management plan is vital to communicate with and obtain agreement and support from all stakeholders to
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ensure the risk management process is supported and performed effectively over the project life cycle.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Project charter
3. Stakeholder register
4. Enterprise environmental factors
5. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Analytical techniques
2. Expert judgment
3. Meetings
Outputs
1. Risk management plan
QUESTION 42
Which input may influence quality assurance work and should be monitored within the context of a system for configuration management?
A. Work performance data
B. Project documents
C. Scope baseline
D. Requirements documentation
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Configuration control is focused on the specification of both the deliverables and the processes; while change control is focused on identifying, documenting, and approving or rejecting changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines.
Some of the configuration management activities included in the Perform Integrated Change Control process are as follows:
Configuration identification. Identification and selection of a configuration item to provide the basis for which the product configuration is defined and verified, products and documents are labeled, changes are managed, and accountability is maintained.
Configuration status accounting. Information is recorded and reported as to when appropriate data about the configuration item should be provided. This information includes a listing of approved configuration identification, status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of approved changes.
Configuration verification and audit. Configuration verification and configuration audits ensure the composition of a project’s configuration items is correct and that corresponding changes are registered, assessed, approved, tracked, and correctly implemented. This ensures the functional requirements defined in the configuration documentation have been met.
QUESTION 43
Change requests are processed for review and disposition according to which process?
A. Control Quality
B. Control Scope
C. Monitor and Control Project Work
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D. Perform Integrated Change Control
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control
Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition. It reviews all requests for changes or modifications to project documents, deliverables, baselines, or the project management plan and approves or rejects the changes.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it allows for documented changes within the project to be considered in an integrated fashion while reducing project risk, which often arises from changes made without consideration to the overall project objectives or plans.
Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Work performance reports
3. Change requests
4. Enterprise environmental factors
5. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Meetings
3. Change control tools
Outputs
1. Approved change requests
2. Change log
3. Project management plan updates
4. Project documents updates
QUESTION 44
The review of a sellers progress toward achieving the goals of scope and quality within cost and schedule compared to the contract is known as:
A. Work performance information.
B. Inspections and audits.
C. Payment systems.
D. Procurement performance reviews.
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: 12.3 Control Procurements
Definition: The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it ensures that both the seller’s and buyer’s performance meets procurement requirements according to the terms of the legal agreement.
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Inputs
1. Project management plan
2. Procurement documents
3. Agreements
4. Approved change requests
5. Work performance reports
6. Work performance data
Tools & Techniques
1. Contract change control system
2. Procurement performance reviews
3. Inspections and audits
4. Performance reporting
5. Payment systems
6. Claims administration
7. Records management system
Outputs
1. Work performance information
2. Change requests
3. Project management plan updates
4. Project documents updates
5. Organizational process assets updates
QUESTION 45
The iterative and interactive nature of the Process Groups creates the need for the processes in which Knowledge Area?
A. Project Communications Management
B. Project Integration Management
C. Project Risk Management
D. Project Scope Management
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 46
Market conditions and published commercial information are examples of which input to the Estimate Costs process?
A. Scope baseline
B. Organizational process assets
C. Enterprise environmental factors
D. Risk register
Correct Answer: C Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
7.2.1.6 Enterprise Environmental Factors
Described in Section 2.1.5. The enterprise environmental factors that influence the Estimate Costs process
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include, but are not limited to:
Market conditions. These conditions describe what products, services, and results are available in the market, from whom, and under what terms and conditions. Regional and/or global supply and demand conditions greatly influence resource costs.
Published commercial information. Resource cost rate information is often available from commercial databases that track skills and human resource costs, and provide standard costs for material and equipment. Published seller price lists are another source of information.
Process: 7.2 Estimate Costs
Definition: The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process is that it determines the amount of cost required to complete project work.
Inputs
1. Cost management plan
2. Human resource management plan
3. Scope baseline
4. Project schedule
5. Risk register
6. Enterprise environmental factors
7. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Expert judgment
2. Analogous estimating
3. Parametric estimating
4. Bottom-up estimating
5. Three-point estimating
6. Reserve analysis
7. Cost of quality
8. Project management software
9. Vendor bid analysis
10. Group decision-making techniques
Outputs
1. Activity cost estimates
2. Basis of estimates
3. Project documents updates
QUESTION 47
An output of the Develop Project Team process is:
A. Organizational process assets.
B. Enterprise environmental factors updates.
C. Project staff assignments.
D. Organizational charts and position descriptions.
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 48
The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project
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activities is known as:
A. Plan Human Resource Management.
B. Acquire Project Team.
C. Manage Project Team.
D. Develop Project Team.
Correct Answer: B Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Process: 9.2 Acquire Project Team
Definition: The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities.
Key Benefit: The key benefit of this process consists of outlining and guiding the team selection and responsibility assignment to obtain a successful team.
Inputs
1. Human resource management plan
2. Enterprise environmental factors
3. Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques
1. Pre-assignment
2. Negotiation
3. Acquisition
4. Virtual teams
5. Multi-criteria decision analysis
Outputs
1. Project staff assignments
2. Resource calendars
3. Project management plan updates
QUESTION 49
Which item is an example of personnel assessment?
A. Resource calendar
B. Tight matrix
C. Team-building activity
D. Focus group
Correct Answer: D Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

QUESTION 50
The Plan Stakeholder Management process belongs to which Process Group?
A. Executing
B. Initiating
C. Planning
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D. Monitoring and Controlling
Correct Answer: C Section: Volume A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Planning Process Group
4.2 Develop Project Management Plan
5.1 Plan Scope Management
5.2 Collect Requirements
5.3 Define Scope
5.4 Create WBS
6.1 Plan Schedule Management
6.2 Define Activities
6.3 Sequence Activities
6.4 Estimate Activity Resources
6.5 Estimate Activity Durations
6.6 Develop Schedule
7.1 Plan Cost Management
7.2 Estimate Costs
7.3 Determine Budget
8.1 Plan Quality Management
9.1 Plan Human Resource Management
10.1 Plan Communications Management
11.1 Plan Risk Management
11.2 Identify Risks
11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
11.5 Plan Risk Responses
12.1 Plan Procurement Management
13.2 Plan Stakeholder Management

 

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